“The administration is a very particular process consisting of the activities of planning, organization, execution and control, performed to determine and achieve the stated objectives with the use of human beings and other resources.”
Based on the concepts established by the different authors, we can conclude that:
The administration is a process to efficiently achieve the objectives of the organization, through coordinating all resources and with the collaboration of the human factor.
The administration is based on the following characteristics
- Its universality
The administration is given in all kinds of organizations, be it State, army, companies, churches, family, etc.
- Its specificity
The administration has its own characteristics that are unmistakable with other sciences, although it helps them.
- Your temporary unit.
In the administration, all or some parts of the administrative process are always being given.
- Your hierarchical unit.
The levels of authority that are established within the organization are always respected.
- Instrumental value
The administration is a means to reach an end, since its purpose is eminently practical and through this one seeks to obtain certain results.
The administration is adapted to the particular needs of each organization.
- Amplitude of Exercise.
This applies to all hierarchical levels of an organization.
According to experts the importance of the administration is based on the following points:
- The administration is given wherever there is an organization.
- The success of a company or social organization is due to the good administration it has.
- For large companies, scientific management is essential.
- For small and medium enterprises, the best way to compete with others is to improve their administration, in other words, to have a better coordination of their resources, including human resources.
- To achieve an increase in productivity, it will depend on an adequate administration.
- For organizations that are developing, the main element to develop their productivity and competitiveness with others is to improve the quality of their administration.
Four basic principles of scientific management that are the following:
- Principle of planning.
In which the worker is prevented from improvising his work
- Principle of Preparation.
At this point, the employee gets a training to better develop their work and therefore, improve their productivity.
- Principle of Control.
The worker is supervised so that he can carry out his work properly
- Principle of Execution
Responsibility is distributed in the work tasks.
Taylor began to create the principles according to the observations made at that time, thinking about obtaining the best productivity based on times and movements.
In France, in the year 1916, where the principles of administration appear for the first time, which are the following:
- Division of labor.
This principle refers to the way to specialize the functions of the members of the organization
- Authority and responsibility
Some considers authority and responsibility related, stating that one cannot be given without the other and vice versa.
The members of the organization must adhere to the established rules.
- Command unit.
It means that each employee must receive orders only from a boss.
- Management unit.
The objectives and plans of the organization should be guided and coordinated by a single leader.
- Subordination of interest individually the general interest.
This point tells us that the interests of the organization must be satisfactorily fulfilled before personal interests.
- Remuneration of the staff.
The members of the organization must receive a fair payment according to the work they do within it.
The authority must be concentrated or dispersed in the organization, according to the own circumstances that determine the best final results to it.
- Line of authority.
The members of each organization are governed by a chain that starts from the highest step to the lowest.
This point for the organization, can be defined as “everything in its place and a place for everything”
The people who exercise the administration must have the loyalty and devotion of the personnel that works within the organization, by means of justice and courtesy in the deal.
- Stability at work.
This principle shows us that the constant rotation of personnel is a sign of bad administration, therefore, we must avoid it.
This point invites us to create and execute a plan and in turn, tells us that we must encourage and promote creativity within the workers of the organization.
- Team spirit.
This principle shows us the importance of creating working groups to improve the work environment that will help us increase productivity and have a greater participation of employees.
The Administrative Process
The administrative process in its simplest concept is “administration in action”. The administration includes several functions or stages necessary to know to apply them to any structure, the set of stages is known as the administrative process. The separation of elements is used for methodological and analytical purposes, since the stages are interrelated and are given as an integral process.
We come to the conclusion that a process is:
The set of stages or fundamental steps for the realization of any administrative task.
Most organizations handle an administrative process of four elements, since they are the most widespread and accepted in almost all the world of administration.
|1. Forecast||goalsResearchAlternative Courses|
|A. Mechanics||2. Planning||PoliciesProceduresPrograms Forecasts. budgets|
|4. Integration||SelectionIntroductionDevelopingIntegration of things|
|B. Dynamics||5. Address||AuthorityCommunicationSupervision|
|6. Control||Your establishmentYour operationYour interpretation|
Experts consider as the first fundamental step of this process the division made by earlier researhers, which is the mechanical phase and the dynamic phase, afterwards, it relates the elements with questions assigned in each one and that are answered at the moment of its application:
Forecast: answer the question what can be done?
Planning: answer the question what is going to be done?
Organization: Answer the question how is it going to be done?
Integration: answers the question: What is it going to be done with?
Address: respond to the problem see that it is done correctly.
Control: answer the question how was it carried out?