Information System (IS) to a set of elements that interact with each other and that have a specific purpose that, in general, has to do with satisfying a need.
Every company or activity, whether developed in the area of medicine, business, chemistry or social sciences, requires an information system.
An Information system has different components such as people, objects, mini systems, data, etc.
This discipline appears in its beginnings as a branch within computing. However, anything that has subsystems or different components and that work for the collection, storage of data and with the subsequent objective of providing certain information, can be considered as an informal or formal information system.
It is important to clarify that the term is currently used as a synonym for computer information system but, as we will develop later, the concept of Information System is broader than the IT.
Organizations in the achievement of the stated objectives that bring them closer to fulfill its mission and vision, are currently attracted by the opportunities presented in international markets. The challenge is to bring innovative products, which contribute solutions to the needs of a new, different, unknown potential market, composed of consumers who share in as a common element to be exposed to cultural, legal, economic, political, geographical variables as well as climatic conditions, specific to each country or group of these, which make them different in their behavior when searching, acquiring, using, evaluating and disposing of the products that are expected meet your needs. In this sense, the need for information has always existed for the organizations at all levels, however, has been accentuated in recent years due to the rapid and intense changes that occur in the markets where it participates. Being even more noticeable when faced with the decision to market internationally the products. Previously consumption habits and structures of markets lasted for years, today markets change in months or weeks.
It also presents the challenge of maximizing the profitability of products through its cycle of life, for which companies undertake internationalization projects of their brands
- Types of information systems
The information systems can be:
- Formal systems. Use computer-based media or solid structures to achieve the goal or objective.
- Informal systems: They use older, elementary or craft structures such as a pencil and paper.
- Compilation of information
One of the characteristics of information systems is the need to collect, store and incorporate qualitative or quantitative data or information.
- Qualitative information. It refers to soft market variables. It is used, for example, in a market research where habits or moments of purchase, types of customer or consumer, etc. can be detected.
- Quantitative information. It is used in many areas and contains hard variables such as weight, sex, age, socioeconomic level, income level, etc.
It is the people who introduce the information in some way (using computer media, digitally or manually) to create a database that will contain the information.
Depending on the type of information that you want to store, the resources will be different in each case. You can use surveys or questionnaires, field observation, censuses or research to obtain certain information.
The activity involves putting people into action so that the information sought can be stored with the available resources. In turn, the activity can be ordered as follows:
- Data collection
Every information system has the main objective of obtaining certain information to achieve a higher level of complexity.
In addition, the objective of the information can be to predict behaviors or phenomena from which hypothesis can be elaborated with the obtained information.
- Feedback and data security
Every information system requires some kind of feedback. This means that the information is re-entered once it has left the information system but in a different way (generally with more elaboration or with more information).
It is also very important to take into account that the collection of information and its care must rest on a certain security (a secure data system) to prevent it from being lost or stolen.
Every information system must be evaluated and measured by the information it obtains and its fidelity, as well as the quality of the different components.
Quality is understood as a control or supervision system to correct errors.
There are different uses depending on the type of organization that uses the information systems. However, broadly speaking, it can be said that the main uses or utilities are:
- Automate the different operating processes.
- Be useful to make decisions.
- Achieve competitive type advantages.
- Advantages of information systems
The main advantages are:
- It facilitates innovation, the detection of problems and their subsequent resolution.
- Reduces the cost of labor by optimizing times, tasks, routines, etc.
- It manages tangible and intangible assets, becoming a fundamental tool of current organizations.
- It is one of the main sources of competitive advantage in the field of business and business.